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What kind of animal do you hope to be?
Canis
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Other Canidae
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Ursidae
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Feline
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Avialae
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Vulpini
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Reptilia
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Other Mammalia
13%
 13% [ 1 ]
Wtf kind of question is this?
0%
 0% [ 0 ]
Total Votes : 8
 

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RayveniaTelvos
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PostSubject: Information -Please read-   Mon 15 Jul - 16:40

Available Species: Canis or other Canis-Like-Canines

  • The Arctic Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus arctos
    Description: Usually all White with a very thick coat, about 5-6 feet long, 4 feet tall, weighing from 60-100 pounds.
  • The Mexican Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus baileyi
    Description: Usually dark red and black with white markings, medium thick coat, about 4-5 feet long, 3 feet tall, 40-80 pounds.
  • The Arabian Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus arabs
    Description: Light brown with a very short coat, 3-4 feet long, 2-3 feet high, about 40-60 pounds. Pure Arabian Wolves have yellow eyes with black pupils.
  • Banks Island Tundra Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus bernardi
    Description: Very thick mostly white coat with black hair along the middle of the back, Large and lanky about 6 feet long, 4 feet tall, 60-110 pounds.
  • British Colombian Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus columbianus
    Description: One of the largest wolves, they can weigh between 80-140 pounds, Usually they are either gray or black with the black ones being the biggest of the two.
  • Vancouver Island Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus crassodon
    Description: A medium sized wolf, Usually grayish black coat, 4-5 feet long, 3 feet high, 40-80 pounds.
    Cascade Mountains Wolf
  • Scientific Name: Canis lupus fuscus
    Description: Cinnamon brown coat, 4-5 feet long, 3 feet high, 80-90 pounds.
    The Hudson Bay Wolf
  • Scientific Name: Canis lupus hudsonicus
    Description: Thick nearly white coat, 4-5 feet long, 3 1/2 feet high, 60-90 pounds.
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus lycaon
    Description: Wide range of colors and sizes, usually there is a darker color upside down crown on the top of the head.
  • Rocky Mountain Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus irremotus
    Description: This is a medium to large light colored Wolf.
  • Labrador Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus labradoriu
    Description: They range in color from dark gray to almost white, they usually are medium sized wolves.
  • Alexander Archipelago Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus ligon
    Description: One of the smallest wolves, about 3 1/2 feet long, about 2 feet high, 30-50 pounds, short haired with a gray coat of fur underneath a black coat.
  • Mackenzie Tundra Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus mackenzii
    Description: A Medium sized wolf, their color ranges from black to white.
  • Baffin Island Tundra Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus manningi
    Description: The smallest of the snow wolves, they have a thick white coat.
  • Mackenzie Valley Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus occidentalis
    Description: One of the largest wolves in Northern America, They weigh between 100-140, color varies from black to almost pure white.
  • Alaska Tundra Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus tundrarum
    Description: This is a large wolf with long light colored fur.
  • Tundra Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus albus
    Description:It is large, long furred, light colored wolf much like its Northern American counterpart: Canis lupus Tundaru
  • Steppe Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus campestris
    Description:It has a short coarse coat that is dull gray with a tint of ochre.
  • Tibetan Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus laniger
    Description: This is a medium sized wolf with long lightly colored fur.
  • Common Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus lupus
    Description: It is a medium sized wolf with coarse dark fur.
  • Middle Eastern Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis lupus pallipes
    Description: It is a small wolf with a tan coarse coat.
  • Red Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis rufus
    Description: The Red Wolf can have a Red,Grey, or Black coat, with white markings.  They are smaller than their cousin the Gray Wolf, they weigh about 40-80 pounds. The females are usually smaller than the males. 
  • Ethiopian Wolf
    Scientific Name: Canis simensis
    Description: The Ethiopian Wolf resembles coyotes in both size and structure. The Ethiopian Wolf stands 2 feet high from the shoulder down. Head and body length is around 4 feet, and its tail length is approximately 12 inches. Males are usually larger than females. Males weigh 30-40 pounds, while females weigh 20-30 pounds. The Ethiopian Wolf has long legs and a long muzzle. Their ears stand straight up and piont forward. They have a bright reddish coat with white on the throat, neck, and underparts. The underside of the tail also is white on the inner half and black towards the outside half. They have short white hairs on the inside of their legs with an thick insulation providing underfur that helps protect against freezing tempatures. Coat and other markings change with age. Females are usually not as brightly colored as the males.
  • Maned Wolf
    Scientific Name: Chrysocyon brachyurus
    Description:5 ft long, 2.5 ft high at shoulder, tail 18 in, about 50 lbs. Red coat with long black legs, muzzle and "mane" (patch of long, erect hairs across the shoulders); white under chin, inside ears and tip of tail. No underfur. Pups born black with white-tipped tail. Largest canid in South America. Long legs permit this animal to see well above tall grass. Two middle toe pads joined at base, allowing foot to spread, increasing the surface area in contact with marshy ground. Mane, when held erect, gives the impression of greater size to other individuals. Lack of underfur that is typically present in other canids may help to keep animal from overheating in tropical climates.


Note: Grey wolves are listed as any Wolf Species with Canis Lupus in it's scientific name.

Available Species: Ursidae

    Bears

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Available Species: Feline

    Cats

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Available Species: Avialae

    Birds

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Available Species: Vulpini

    Foxes

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Available Species: Reptilia

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Available Species: Other Mammalia

    Other Mammals

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Note: Many species are not yet listed. If you think a species should be listed please PM me the Species name, scientific name, physical description and give me a link of the source of your information. Thank you.


Last edited by RayveniaTelvos on Mon 15 Jul - 22:37; edited 1 time in total
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PostSubject: Re: Information -Please read-   Mon 15 Jul - 17:22

Pack Mentality: Hierarchy
 

  • Alpha(s): The alphas are the most dominant and respected of a pack. Not only are they given respect, they demand it and if they are not given the respect they deserve they will fight for it. Disrespect of any kind will not be tolerated by an alpha. If the two alphas of a pack (the alpha pair or mated pair) see that another pack member is not getting the respect that their rank is deserved they will see to it that the pack member gets the respect their rank is owed. All alphas try to know what is going on within their pack, and with each pack member. As they have the final say on what goes on in a pack, they are expected to do everything for the good of the pack. Even if it is a personal decision, it must be done for the good of the pack. They decide which Pack members do which job each day, and are the most responsible Pack members of the pack.

  • Beta (s):The Betas in a pack play a very similar role as the Alphas. Betas are usually looked upon as second in command, taking over while the alphas are not present. They are able to make the same decisions and have the same amount of respect as the alphas. They answer to no one but their Alphas. While the Alphas are present, Betas are mostly used to settle minor jobs or disputes.


    • Delta Beta: Leader of the Delta Pack members of a pack.
    • Epsilon Beta: Leader of the Epsilon Pack members of a pack.
    • Zeta: Leader of the Zeta Pack members of a pack.
    • Tau: Leader of the Tau Pack members of a pack.
    • Sigma: Leader of the Sigma Pack members of a pack.
    • Omega: Leader of the Omega Pack members of a pack.
    • Pup: Leader of the Puppies of a pack, in training to be the next alpha.



  • Delta : The Guardian Pack members of the pack are looked to for protection. It is their job to watch over the den, the territory and the pups, and make sure that the pack's home is safe. They stand as the first and last line of defense against an enemy pack, and the first to welcome non threatening packs or individuals.

  • Epsilon: The Shaman Pack members are usually the smaller and weaker of the pack, although not necessarily the Oldest. These Pack members are born with a keen intellect and show great interest and skill in caring for the weak or sick of the pack. It is their job to provide healing for any who is sick or injured, guide the pack towards the spiritual side of life, predict the future as told by the stars and spirits, speak to and convey messages for the spirits. They have an inborn knowledge of all things spiritual and natural, and are known for using herbs, stones, and other natural items to heal the pack. [/font]

  • Zeta: The Hunter Pack members are similar to the Guardian Pack members in that they are usually some of the larger and stronger Pack members. The job given to these Pack members is to hunt for food for the pack, scout out the territory for new food sources, and to hunt for new dens when needed. In a wolf pack this is one of the most valuable positions as it is the Pack members' job to provide food and nourishment for the pack and pups.

  • Tau:The Elder Pack members of the pack are usually the oldest, wisest and most experienced of the Pack members. They are usually the ones that many of the younger members of the pack go to for advice. They are known as the storytellers and history keepers of the Pack, as their job is to remember and record the history of their pack. As they are too old to do much in the way of work, they are usually helped by Omegas and Pups in order to do what few tasks that are given to them.

  • Sigma: Regular pack members who do not yet have a either for being new to the pack or not having learned their destined path yet. They will, over the weeks, try out many aspects of the pack's life in order to determine where they will be placed. In the end that decision is up to the Alphas.

  • Omega: The weaker of the pack. Unable to find a place in the higher ranks of the Hierarchy, these Pack members mostly serve as pup-sitters, gatherers, cleaners and other minor tasks. One of their biggest jobs however, is to help ease tensions between the other packmates, especially after a failed hunt. This is done by acts of submission, acts of silliness or even nothing more than just laying beside their packmate and being caring.

  • Pups: All pups are treated as above the Omega, but below all others in the pack.

  • Loner: Though not a part of the pack, this rank is used to call any who has not joined a pack. Many do not wish to join a pack at all unless they control it. These animals are seen with fear, and are usually under heavy watch if they walk into the territory of a pack.



 


Information about the Packs




  • Typical packs consist of between 4 to 40 pack members, depending on territory and the prey within said territory.
  • The center of the pack is the mated pair or the Alpha pair.




Young Development -Non Birds

  • 10-13 days: eyes open.
  • 3 weeks: ability to hear. milk teeth appear. start exploring the den.
  • 4 weeks: leave the den. begin to eat meat.
  • 5 weeks: start to travel up to a mile from the den.
  • 5-8 weeks: weaning and moved to the "rendezvous site."
  • 12 weeks: start to follow along on hunts.
  • 4-7 months: loose milk teeth.
  • 7-8 months: start to hunt




Bird Development


  • Day 1: Hatches. Eyes closed, no feathers, can lift head to gape for food.
  • Day 2: Slight down emerges, feeding peep may become audible, motor skills poor.
  • Day 3: Egg tooth disappears, eyes begin to open, feather sheaths of primary feathers begin to pierce skin, feather tracts along back become slightly visible.
  • Day 4: Feather tracts begin to pierce through skin, eyes are now open, baby birds move to other side of the nest on instinct to make room.
  • Day 5: Feather sheaths prominent on all tracts, bird begins to lengthen, some may stand on feet, preening imitation begins, yawning begins, leg stretching begins.
  • Day 6: Eyes are fully open, thermoregulation (ability to produce heat for themselves) establishing, Feathers growing in well.
  • Day 7:Hungry bird location call established, fear and cowering first appears, rapid development of motor coordination, frequent stretching wings and legs, scratching head, yawning, climbing to edge of nest, plenty of actual preening and feather care, able to track motion to gape in direction of movement, Pin feathers begin to unsheathe.
  • Day 8: Begins to wing flutter when begging for food, well feathered above and below, preening well established, stretching both wings down at same time, wing beating and hovering, appetite may slacken.
  • Day 9: Shaking and fluffing, begging from siblings.
  • Day 10-16: Leaves nest, tucks head under wing to sleep, unable to fly well, landings are clumsy, pecks at food, may begin eating by itself, playful behavior, drinks at day 13, inactive most of time except at feeding, landing on parent, hopping, walking, landing on others, develops escape reactions to capture, vocalizations now include location note, feeding note, pain cry, fear scream, singing, whispers and warbles, bathing begins day 13-15, beak wiping between day 11-13 as signs of distaste and cleaning of beak.
  • Day 17-28: Full flight ability, gradual independence from parent, masters self-feeding, will still actively chase parents for food, learns what to fear and not to fear from parents, actively playing. Begins sunning at day 18, able to sound alarm note, and develops social and anti social behaviors at day 19-21.


Note: While much of the above works with most animals and packs in real life, due to time constraints and the inability to research each and every type of pack/ animal development/ etc, all information will be used for All species, not just wolves and canines.
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PostSubject: Re: Information -Please read-   Mon 15 Jul - 22:21

Paint Color meanings and Symbolism
Peacetime Paint:
Black: Victory and Success
Red:Faith, Beauty, and Happiness
White: Sharing, Purity and Light
Yellow/Orange: Intellect and Determination
Green: Nature, Harmony and Healing
Blue: Wisdom and Intuition
Purple: Power, Mystery, Magic, and Sacred Power

War Time Paint:
Black: Power, Aggression, and Strength
Red:Blood, Violence, and Energy
White: Mourning
Yellow/Orange: Willing to fight to the death
Green: Endurance
Blue: Confidence
Purple: Power, Mystery, Magic, and Sacred Power

Symbols:
Lightning Bolt: The meaning of the lightning symbol represented lightning which was believed to add power and speed to the warrior.  
   
Paw Print: The meaning of the Paw Print Symbol represented success in paw to paw combat. It symbolized all life and was believed to channel energy to the wearer.

The Medicine Wheel:
The Circle of Life, is often depicted in the Medicine Wheel which contains color meanings and symbolism. The circle and the four equal parts and colors of the medicine wheel represent the lifespan of man and its colors and meanings are as follows:
Red : Birth is represented by the color red
Yellow: Growth is represented by the color yellow
Black: Maturity is represented by the color black
White: Death is represented by the color white

The colors and symbolism of the Medicine Wheel also represent the four qualities of a balanced life:
Red: The Spiritual life is represented by the color red
Yellow: Emotional life is represented by yellow
Black: The Physical life is represented by black
White: The Intellect is represented by white

Ingredients for paint making:

Red: Crimson and yellowish-red clay, Dandelion root. Gray or yellowish clay was baked over hot ashes until it turned red.

White: White clay, Limestone, Ground gypsum, Eggshells, Sea shells, Bone

Black: Powdered charcoal or black earth

Blue: Duck Manure, Powdered azurite and lapis, Sun flower seeds, Berries and Flowers

Purple: Pokeweed berries, Coneflowers, Blueberries, Hibiscus.

Peach: Virginia creeper

Green:  Copper ore,  Queen Anne's Lace, Grass, Rhododendron Leaves, Moss, Algae, Flowers, Berries.

Yellow Powdered yellow clay, Red Clover, Goldenrod flowers, Marigold, Sumac bark,Bixa plant or tree (Also known as annatto, it is a bushy shrub or small tree)

Brown: Onion and passion fruit skins, Acorns, Walnut hull, dirt and mud

Pink: Rose hips

Grey: Iris roots, Ash

How animals powdered paint pigments:
The Shamans would find a large, immovable rock, place the ingredient onto the rock, and using another large rock that they held with their mouth they would bash it. Most Shamans just lifted their head high and dropped the rock on the ingredient(s). They would use this same process to make small fires in the shaman's den to produce sacred smoke/heat fats/etc.

How wolves made fires:
A Shaman would forage for small, dry pieces of grass, wood, and twigs. Next they would put the kindling next to an immovable rock. Using the same process that is used to powder paint pigments they would strike the rock to produce a spark until the fire was lit.

Reasons for Panting:

War paint - war paint to intimidate their enemies when going into battle or during warfare - this where the term "War Paint" was originally derived.

Marks of Distinction and Honor: War Paint, Face and Body paint for certain tribes would indicate achievements and success.

Camouflage - Paint was used as camouflage for both hunting and warfare enabling the wearer to blend into the environment and exercise the element of surprise.

Ceremonies, Dances and Rituals: Specific colors and patterns were applied.

Visual Messages: Victory, Mourning etc were indicated by the application of face and body paint.

Mental Preparation: Medicine Men often chose certain markings for warriors and that powerful magic was passed on during the application of the war paint helping the warrior to believe himself invincible. Paint was used as an element in Spiritual Healing.

Power and Magic: It was believed that the application of certain symbols and colors afforded the wearer with 'Magic' for power and protection by drawing on natural powers and combining these with the power of the warrior. Symbols included stripes, circles and triangles.

Protection: Paint was commonly used to protected the skin and fur from insects, the sun, the wind and the cold.

Decoration: War paint, Face paint and Body paint was applied as decoration, just as we use make-up today. Women of certain tribes also used face and body paints for decoration.


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PostSubject: Re: Information -Please read-   Mon 15 Jul - 22:30

Herbal Remedies:

How would a Shaman produce a herbal remedy:
For most remedies, the Shaman would produce a fire which he or she would then throw powdered herbs into to produce a healing smoke. For remedies that had to be ingested, one of two processes could be done. The first, and most widely used is to powder the herbs and sprinkle them onto raw meat for the sick/injured to eat. The second process, and most hated, is to make a herbal 'tea'. To do this a special rock is found that has a large enough hole to put a liquid into, but large enough to leak, and thin enough to heat up. Next the Shaman produces a fire and lets the rock heat up. After the fire has gone down to being nothing more than warm ashes, the Shaman gathers water from a nearby stream (using the normal wolf 'puke' method is one way the wolves did this.) and puts the powdered herbs into the water. After the herbs have been soaking in the water for long enough, the sick/injured packmate is told to drink it... Fast. For wounds and injuries requiring a poultice the same method is used except that the water is then poured directly onto the wound, or poured on a layer of dried grasses and leaves and then mud is applied to seal the wound.

Herbs and what they are used for:
*Does not have full list. This is just a few.
Skunk Cabbage: Used to stimulate the removal of phlegm in asthma.

Mullein: This herb is trown onto fires, and the wolves 'smoked' the pulverized, dried root for respiratory complaints. Some wolves also used a sweetened syrup from the boiled root, which they gave to their pups for coughs.

Arnica: Used as a wash to treat sprains and bruises.

Gentain: The wolves steeped the roots in hot water and applied the hot fluid on aching backs.

Horsemint: Some Shamans crushed and steeped fresh horsemint leaves in cold water and drank the infusion to allay back pain. Other packs used horsemint for fever, inflammation, and chills.

Wormwood: Many Shamans used a tea of the boiled leaves of a local species of wormwood to cure bronchitis.

Pleurisy Root: Shamans would produce a tea of the boiled roots as a remedy for pneumonia and was later used to promote the expulsion of phlegm.

Creosote Bush: A tea of the leaves was used for bronchial and other respiratory problems.

Yellow-Spined Thistle: Shamans boiled yellow-spined thistle blossoms and applied the resulting liquid to burns and skin sores.

Feavers: Wolf Shamans boiled the inner bark in water, using the tea to reduce fevers.

Willow: The Pomo Wolf Shamans boiled the inner root bark, then drank strong doses of the resulting tea to induce sweating in cases of chills and fever. In the south, the Natchez prepared their fever remedies from the bark of the red willow, while the Creek wolves plunged into willow root baths for the same purpose.

Pennyroyal: The Onondaga Ursa steeped pennyroyal leaves and drank the tea to cure headaches.
Dandelion: A tea of the roots was drunk for heartburn by the Pillager Ojibwas. Mohega falcons drank a tea of the leaves for a tonic.

Yellow Root: A tea from the root was used by the Cataw lynx and the Cheroriti squirrels as a stomach ache remedy.

Geranium: Chippe squirrels and Otta wolf pack boiled the entire geranium plant and drank the tea for diarrhea.

Blackcherry: A tea of blackberry roots was the most frequently used remedy for diarrhea among many packs.

Green Hellebore: Some packs used the green hellebore to relive body pains.

American Hemp and Dogbane: Used by some packs as a heart medicine, the fruit was boiled when it was still green, and the resulting decoction drunk. It was also used for kidney problems and for dropsy.

Which Hazel: Some packs boiled the leaves and rubbed the liquid on the legs of tribesmen who were participating in sporting games. A decoction of the boiled twigs was used to cure aching backs, while steam derived by placing the twigs in water with hot rocks was a favorite Potawatomi treatment for muscle aches.

Native Hemlock: Many packs prepared a tea if the inner bark and drank it to relieve cold symptoms. A similar tea was used by others to induce sweating and relieve colds and feverish conditions.
Fendler bladderpod: Many packs made a tea and used it to treat spider bites.
Tobacco: A favorite remedy for bee stings was the application of wet tobacco leaves.
Broom Snakeweed: Some packs chewed the stem and applied the resin to insect bites and stings of all kinds.

Saltbush: Many packs chewed the stems and placed the pulpy mash on areas of swelling caused by ant, bee and wasp bites. The Zun fox pack applied the dried, powdered roots and flowers mixed with saliva to ant bites.

Trumpet Honeysuckle: The leaves were ground by chewing and then applied to bees stings.

Purple Coneflower: The Plains packs used this as a universal application for the bites and stings of all crawling, flying, or leaping bugs. Between June and September, the bristly stemmed plant, which grows in dry, open woods and on prairies, bears a striking purplish flower.

Goldenseal: Many packs pounded the large rootstock with bear fat and smeared it on their bodies as an insect repellent. It was also used as a tonic, stimulant, and astringent.

Pokeweed: Dakal wolf Shamans drank a tea of the boiled berries to cure rheumatism. The dried root was also used to allay inflammation.

Wild Black Cherry: Many packs made a sedative tea of the root bark.

Hops: Many Shamans prepared a sedative medicine from the conelike strobiles and sometimes heated the blossoms and applied them for toothache. The Dakotoa packs used a tea of the steeped strobiles to relieve pains of the digestive organs, and others regarded a related species of hops as a panacea.

Other Widely used herbal remedies:

Allergies: Chamomile

Forgetfullness: Ginkgo, Rosemary

Anxiety and stress: Kava, Passionflower, Valerian, Chamomile, Lavender

Arthritis: Ginger, Turmeric, Cat's Claw, Devil's Claw

Consentration sickness: Evening Primrose oil

Bad breath: Parsley

Burns: Aloe

Wasting sickness (cancer): Blackberry, garlic,raspberry

Colds: licorice root

Heart issues: Hawthorn

Sadness: St. John's wort

High blood pressure: Garlic

Indigestion: Pepperment, Chamomile

Infection: Garlic

Irregular heartbeat: Hawthorn

Muscle pain: wintergreen

Migraine: Feverfew, Butterbur

Toothache: Clove Oil, Willow
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PostSubject: Re: Information -Please read-   Mon 15 Jul - 22:32

Dominance and Submission
A high ranking pack member will show dominance in order to assert it's authority over a lower ranked pack member. This is common of both the alpha(s) and the other higher ranked members of a pack.
That being said most pack members rarely if ever severely harm one another unless they are challenged. Often the most that will be done is visual displays of power, or 'putting one to ground' which is simply forcing them onto their back.
A display of submission is often made by the lower ranking pack members. It is a show of respect and acceptance of authority. All pack members show submission except for the alpha pair. The rank of submission goes down the line with betas submitting to alphas, and down the line from there.

Communication -Wolves:
Wolves communicate in a number of ways, two of which are vocal sounds and body language.
Body Language: Wolves convey much with their bodies. If they are angry, they may stick their ears straight up and bare their teeth. A wolf who is suspicious pulls its ears back and squints. Fear is often shown by flattening the ears against the head. A wolf who wants to play dances and bows playfully.
Happy: ears in a neutral or slightly laid back posture, forehead smooth with brows slightly raised, eyes relaxed or wide, muzzle relaxed, jaw dropped, may be panting, pelt relaxed or slightly bristled, tail in a neutral low swayed-back position or somewhat lifted and wagging.
Neutral: ears raised or foreword, forehead and brows relaxed, eyes relaxed, muzzle relaxed, mouth closed or slightly agape, may be panting in warm weather, pelt relaxed, tail carried low, may be straight out or raised in a dominant Wolf.
Depressed: ears are down or back, forehead may be furrowed, eyes are downcast, muzzle is neutral, lips seem to hang down, pelt is neutral, tail hangs straight down or my slightly curve along the outside of a hip.
Anxious: ears lay flat but outward, forehead is furrowed, eyes are somewhat slit-like and peering, muzzle twitches and lips are pulled back, but not so much that fangs are bared, pelt may be slightly bristled, and tail can take several postures, depending an the nature of anxiety: Up, notched to the side, and somewhat flicking is an imposing attitude; lowered and somewhat notched to the side is often observed while eating; straight down and notched when between uncertain.
Uncertain: ears lay flat, outward and forward, forehead shows definite furrowing with raised brows, eyes are angry and slit-like, muzzle is furrowed and nose is pulled back and puckered, fangs are bared with tongue stuck out between incisors, pelt is bristled, hackles raised, tail is lowered, sometimes tucked. This posture is one of both defense and submissiveness... the Wolf has not decided on fight or flight and is confused.
Threatened/Angry: ears raised and forward, forehead furrowed, eyes wide, wild, and angry, muzzle furrowed with lips lifted high and nose puckered, fangs and even teeth are barred, tongue is tucked back and mostly out of sight, pelt is bristled, hackles are raised, stance is somewhat crouched and ready to leap, tail is straight out or raised, notched or hooked in appearance, with the tip often twitching to one side. All of this Wolf's attention is bearing down on the target and he or she waits only for an opportunity to lunge.
Smell: Wolves have a very good sense of smell about 100 times greater than humans. They use this sense for communication in a variety of ways. Wolves mark their territories with urine, a behavior called scent-marking. When wolves from outside of the pack smell these scents, they know that an area is already occupied. It is likely that pack members can recognize the identity of a pack mate by its urine, which is useful when entering a new territory or when pack members become separated. Dominant animals may scent mark through urination every two minutes. When they do so they raise a leg, this dominant posture utilizes multiple forms of communication and is called a "Raised Leg Urination" or RLU. Wolves will also use urine to scent mark food caches that have been exhausted. By marking an empty cache, the animal will not waste time digging for food that isn't there.
Wolves use their sense of smell to communicate through chemical messages. These chemical messages between members of the same species are known as "pheromones." Sources of pheromones in wolves include glands on the toes, tail, eyes and skin.
Of course, their sense of smell also tells them when food or enemies are near.
Howls: Used as distance communication of all kinds. Distinct vocal sounds can mean multiple things, so depending on the pack the howl of a wolf could mean “We have food here.” or “Big bear shit here.”
Bark: Barking is used as a warning. A mother may bark to her pups because she senses danger, or a bark or bark-howl may be used to show aggression in defense of the pack or territory.
Whimpering: Whimpering may be used by a mother to indicate her willingness to nurse her young. It is also used to indicate "I give up" if they are in a submissive position and another wolf is dominating them.
Growling: Growling is used as a warning. A wolf may growl at intruding wolves or predators, or to indicate dominance.
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